Recognise that they need light in order to see things and that dark is the absence of light
Notice that light is reflected from surfaces
Recognise that light from the sun can be dangerous and that there are ways to protect their eyes
Recognise that shadows are formed when the light from a light source is blocked by an opaque object
Find patterns in the way that the size of shadows change.
Identify common appliances that run on electricity
Construct a simple series electrical circuit, identifying and naming its basic parts, including cells, wires, bulbs, switches and buzzers
Identify whether or not a lamp will light in a simple series circuit, based on whether or not the lamp is part of a complete loop with a battery
Recognise that a switch opens and closes a circuit and associate this with whether or not a lamp lights in a simple series circuit
Recognise some common conductors and insulators, and associate metals with being good conductors.
Recognise that light appears to travel in straight lines
Use the idea that light travels in straight lines to explain that objects are seen because they give out or reflect light into the eye
Explain that we see things because light travels from light sources to our eyes or from light sources to objects and then to our eyes
Use the idea that light travels in straight lines to explain why shadows have the same shape as the objects that cast them.
Associate the brightness of a lamp or the volume of a buzzer with the number and voltage of cells used in the circuit
Compare and give reasons for variations in how components function, including the brightness of bulbs, the loudness of buzzers and the on/off position of switches
Use recognised symbols when representing a simple circuit in a diagram.